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Aral Sea

Aral Sea

Cataphracts

Historical re-enactment of a Sassanid-era cataphract, complete with a full set of scale armor for the horse. Note the rider's extensive mail armor, which was de rigueur for the cataphracts of antiquity. A cataphract was a form of armored Persian heavy cavalry utilised in ancient warfare by a number of…
bubmag
May 10, 2020
Aral Sea

文章翻译 | 蒙古帝国时期及其解体后中亚和钦察草原的“突厥”概念/认同(英汉对照) (评论: Oxford Research Encyclopedias: Asian History)

本文为该书中一篇论文的译文(DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.443),Joo-Yup Lee作,Sansar译,其英文原文发表于2019年12月(oxfordre.com/asianhistory),版权归牛津大学出版社所有。译者的话:如果您对概念史,知识史,建构主义,欧亚草原史,蒙古帝国史,内亚史,突厥学,蒙古学感兴趣的话,这篇或许是您的必读文章。这篇文章的亮点不在于华丽而空洞的辞藻,也不在于故弄玄虚难以捉摸的专业术语,它就是用通俗易懂的语言告诉您:史料里写了什么,怎么写的,互相之间的关系是什么,通过分析综合海量/多文种史料(阿拉伯,波斯,察合台,奥斯曼,汉,古突厥,俄,回鹘蒙古,西班牙,法,德等)和口头文学作品(金帐汗国及其后裔人群等),展现出一幅概念/认同演变的图景。它告诉您:1)“突厥”一词到底指的是什么;2)成吉思汗的“世界帝国”政权体系之所以很关键,不仅在于这一体系众多的遗产继承者,更在于这一体系塑造了生命力极强的概念/认同;3)历史研究妥帖的分析单位是政权,而不是近现代才建构出来的“语族”,“民族”等概念,证据要建立在分析推断当时的认知结构上,而不是把后世形成的概念/单位套用到对于前世的研究上,更不是把后世形成的概念等同于前世的概念。后世“语族”,“民族”等的建构/识别,是前世政权体系社会历史进程的副产品,而不是其原因。希望这篇文章能够帮助您,以“突厥”概念/认同的演变为主线,迅速地建立起一个对成吉思汗“世界帝国”体系的全景式的理解。研究“史实”,大致关注三种问题:1)“祖先”有谁(基因史),2)“祖先”们互相是怎样组织起来的(政权史),3)“祖先”们是怎么想的,知道什么,不知道什么(概念史/知识史)。物质上,我们都是多少个世纪基因交流,融合,层叠过程的产物,我们的意识则是概念/知识建构过程的产物,在建构过程中,概念/知识积累,消长,变化,发展,而融合和建构这两大过程都受到各政权的深刻塑造,并相互塑造。基于这些假设,我们拿到一个概念时,首先应该探究它的历史,探究它何时开始形成,探究它在不同历史背景下的内涵和外延,探究它不同用法之间的区别和联系,探究它和其它概念之间的关系,而不是想当然地认为这个概念有“亘古不变”的含义。具体到这篇文章的主题,希望您在通读全文后,能够区分以下概念,并明白之间的关系(总结见连载12):“突厥”的8种用法,“蒙兀儿/蒙古”的2种用法,“鞑靼”的2种用法,“蒙兀儿/蒙古突厥”,“塔吉克”,“突厥和塔吉克”,“术赤兀鲁思/术赤国人”,“乌兹别克/月即别”的2种用法,“察合台兀鲁思”,“察合台”,“哈萨克”,“萨尔特”,“土库曼”,“卡尔梅克”;同时注意:“突厥”≠“突厥语族”,“蒙古”≠“蒙古语族”!英文原文有189个注释,信息量不亚于正文,但译者没有翻译。如果您无法看到英文原文,或者读不懂英文原文,但对注释的内容感兴趣,可以通过公众平台联系译者。Keywords关键词Türk, Turk, Turkic, Mongol, Jochi, Chaghatay, Uzbek, Qazaq, Tatar, Nomad, Tajik, Chinggisid, Timurid, Central Asia, Inner Asia(阿史那系)突厥汗国,(伊斯兰世界认知)突厥,突厥语族,蒙古帝国/(公元13世纪的)蒙古草原各部,术赤兀鲁思,察合台兀鲁思,乌兹别克/月即别,哈萨克,鞑靼,游牧人群,(定居人群)塔吉克,成吉思汗后裔/黄金家族,帖木儿家族,中亚,内亚文章结构摘要一“突厥”概念/认同的起源和传播1.1对突厥汗国认同的兴起和消逝1.2“突厥”概念/认同在伊斯兰世界的传播二 蒙古帝国时期及其解体后中亚的“突厥”概念/认同2.1穆斯林史学家将(公元13世纪的)蒙古草原各部识别为“突厥”2.2蒙古帝国及其后继政权对于“突厥”概念/认同的采用2.3中亚地区蒙古帝国及其后继政权“突厥”概念/认同的性质/含义2.4蒙古帝国解体后中亚成吉思汗后裔/黄金家族和帖木儿家族政权对蒙古帝国/(公元13世纪)蒙古草原各部的认同三 钦察草原上蒙古帝国各后继政权“突厥”概念/认同的缺失3.1术赤兀鲁思/金帐汗国及其后继政权并没有“突厥”的自我认同3.2术赤兀鲁思/金帐汗国后继政权人群对蒙古帝国/(公元13世纪)蒙古草原各部的认同四 文献综述五 史料介绍5.1伊儿汗国,帖木儿帝国,蒙兀儿斯坦,昔班系乌兹别克汗国的文字史料5.2哈萨克汗国,克里米亚(鞑靼)汗国,喀山(鞑靼)汗国(含巴什基尔),卡西姆(鞑靼)汗国的文字史料和口头文学作品六 专有名词列表6.1概念/认同6.2政权6.3部落联盟/部落/家族/氏族/人群6.4历史人物6.5神话人物6.6史料6.7史料作者/史学家6.8地名/地理概念6.9现当代学者Summary摘要The Turkic identity that first emerged with the rise of the Türk empire in the mid-6th century did not encompass all Turkic-speaking nomads in the Inner Asian…
bubmag
May 5, 2020
Aral Sea

From Wuppertal to China with a camper van

"The Far East in the fast lane" is the title of the new book by journalist and truck driver Jochen Dieckmann. It chronicles his adventurous journey, which he undertook in 2019 along the new Silk Road. In one of the photos Jochen Dieckmann brought back from his trip around the…
bubmag
May 5, 2020
Aral Sea

The world is paying a high price for cheap clothes

When shoppers entered H&M's flagship store in central London last summer, the first thing they would have seen was a dark blue, flowery minidress hanging front and center. On sale for just £4 (or $4.80 US), the dress featured more than a low price tag. It also boasted a green…
bubmag
May 3, 2020
Aral Sea

The Trip: after decades of isolation, Tashkent is on the up

The Trip: after decades of isolation, Tashkent is on the up Weekly at Wallpaper*, ‘The Trip’ takes you on a detailed tour of an under-explored town, city or territory, direct from your living room. This week’s feature is from our January 2020 issue (W*250), when we dispatched Deyan Sudjic, former…
bubmag
April 27, 2020
Aral Sea

The Lost Sea | AJ –Canada’s Environmental Voice

Submission + - SPAM: The Lost Sea | AJ –Canada's Environmental Voice Submitted by alternativesjournal on Wednesday April 22, 2020 @01:39PM alternativesjournal writes: Alternatives Journal (AJ) is Canada’s renewable energy magazine recent study shows that the Aral Sea was once the fourth-largest lake on the planet. Now, it more closely…
bubmag
April 22, 2020
Aral Sea

Report condemns environmental impact of fast fashion

We need a new approach to making and buying clothes because the current system is unsustainable.The fast fashion industry continues to cause significant environmental damage, a new report says, and revising our approach to clothes should be a top priority. The report, titled "The Environmental Price of Fast Fashion," was…
bubmag
April 9, 2020